ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF MAIZE SEEDS TREATMENT
Authors: Elena Hera, Carmen Mincea, Alexandra Pasareanu, Elena Trotus, Horia Iliescu
Abstract: Economic efficiency of maize seeds treatment. The integrated protection schemes includes seed treatment as an important link that causes significant yield increases. To calculate economic efficiency of the corn crop, they were take into consideration the cost of all technological links. For seed treatment, it was selected the substance that has shown the best efficacy in controlling the major pests, namely Tanymecus dilaticollis and Agriotes sp. The seed treatment method has shown a good economic efficiency, leading to significantly increased production compared with untreated control.
Key words: seed treatment, ecological plant protection products, biological efficacy, economic efficiency
BENEFICIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME BACTERIAL STRAINS ISOLATED FROM RHIZOSPHERE
Authors: Florica Constantinescu, Oana-Alina Sicuia, Roxana Zamfiropol, Sorina Dinu, Florin Oancea
Abstract: The present study refers to selection in steps of beneficial bacterial strains for cropped plants, based on important biological traits which are involved in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) and therefore are key elements in plant defense mechanisms. A total of 85 cropped plants rhizosphere isolates were analyzed for antagonistic activity in vitro against soil borne fungi,like Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria spp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotium bataticola for enzymes production, like cellulase, amylase and lactonase, for mobility, biofilm formation and plant growth promotion effect on wheat seedlings. Five strains were selected, coded with Usa2, Cpb6, Mzb4 (Gram positive, isolated from garlic, onion and pea plants rhizosphere), Salc2 and Rdb2 (Gram negative, isolated from lettuce and radish rhizosphere). The strains Usa2, Mzb4, Cpb6 belong to Bacillus spp. and the strains Salc2 and Rdb2 to Pseudomonas spp. based on their fatty acid profile and to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and showed high antagonistic activity in vitro against the mentioned soil borne fungi. All of them produced amylase, the strains Usa2 and Rdb2 produced cellulase and the strains Rdb2, Cpb6, Mzb4, Usa2 produced lactonase. All strains showed both swimming and swarming motility and formed biofilm in the tested growing media.
Key words: biocontrol, beneficial bacteria, plant growth promotion
ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOME FUNGICIDE MIXTURES ACCORDING TO GLP REQUIREMENTS
Authors: Marga Gradila, Mincea Carmen, Elena Hera
Abstract: The aim of this study is the assessment of environmental risks of four fungicide mixtures showing the demonstrating data of d biological systems using aquatic organisms in GLP conditions designed in the eco-toxicological facility of RDIPP Bucharest.
In order to assess the four fungicides mixtures environmental risk according to the principles of good laboratory practice, we have gone through the following stages: development of the framework structure by ensuring the material base (plant complex to produce de-ionized water, reconstituted and d thermostatic water), water supply for tests, achievement of the control system and software for inspection of the environmental conditions in the acclimation and test rooms, and development of the specific operating procedures and testing.
The acquired data established that the biological systems model of the testing facility agree with the OECD directories concerning the GLP compliance. Following the examination of the fungicides mixtures in terms of acute toxicity against Daphnia magna and Cyprinus carpio revealed that three out of them (myclobutanil with thiram, captan and myclobutanil, and carbendazim with propiconazole) showed the environmental efficiency, irrespectively low toxicity. The mixture of carbendazim and thiram showed a higher toxicity, inducing toxicity symptoms in fish: inactivity, sudden sinking, decoloration, and weakness, spiral swimming, loss of balance, spasms, slow and heavy breathing.
Key words: eco-toxicology, reconstituted biological system, Cyprinus carpio, Daphnia magna
BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS MODEL ACCOMPLISHMENT ON GLP COMPLIANCE
Authors: Marga Gradila, Mincea Carmen, Elena Hera, Alexandra Pasareanu
Abstract: The aim of this study is to display the designed stages of two biological systems pattern including aquatic organisms as fish and Daphnia. The accomplishment of these two biological systems pattern was possible thanks to the Ministry of the Agriculture and Rural Development by an endowment PHARE project of the equipment for the Eco-toxicology Laboratory. In order to accomplished the proposed biological systems according to the Good Laboratory Practice, the following stages have been run: the design of the structure frame providing the material base, (the complex water supply installation with equipment for deionization, reconstituted and thermostated reconstituted), the supply of the necessary water for tests, achievement of the control system and checking soft for the surveillance of the environment conditions from the acclimatization rooms, as well as the specific elaboration of the specific operating procedures.
Key words: eco-toxicology, biologic system, reconstituted water, specific procedure.
WEED BIO-CONTROL AND TOMATO PLANTS GROWTH PROMOTION BY APPLYING AN ALTERNATIVE CULTIVATION SYSTEM INTO BIO-COMPOSITE MULCH
Authors: Oana Sicuia, Florin Oancea, Sorina Dinu, Roxana Zamfiropol, Viorel Fatu, Cristina Fatu, Liliana Anton, Emil Voicu
Abstract: Mulching represents a profitable technological step in crop production. Due to the cultural and efficacy advantages in solving certain agro-technical and environmental problems, mulching has expanded considerably in agricultural technologies. Using hairy vetch as cover crop mulch has the advantage to protect the soil during winter season against erosion and stores a larger amount of water in the active soil layer, while in vegetation season enriches the land in atmospheric nitrogen and reduces the weed development. The aim of this research was to develop an alternative mulch system for tomato cultures that synergically combines the benefits of a legume cover crop with the advantages of a biologically active film, which covers the mowed vetch. The bioactive layer contains useful micro-organisms that promote plant growth (like Azospirillum brasilene Sp001, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B165) or that reduce the entomo-pathogen attack (Beauveria bassiana). This mulching system has proved to be useful in limiting the weed populations, in preservation and sustainable use of soil resources, in increasing fruit production and precocity, in improving photosynthetic efficiency and maintain a good plant physiology in unfavorable environment conditions, such as high temperatures and low relative humidity. The binding fruit percentage was with 3 higher than the control, and fruit production was 6,8 kg/m2 for variant inoculated with Sp 001, followed by the one with B165 with 6,4 kg/m2, the reference being 5,2 kg/m2. Plants grown in this bio-composite mulch system have a higher phothosyntethic efficiency, since the energy losses by fluorescence are lower. The mulched areas suppress weed populations whithin 36÷ 41 plants/m2 compared to 94plants/m2 in reference group. This study shows that the cultivation system in bioactive composite mulch for tomato culture, suppresses weed growing, improves culture physiology and increases fruit production.
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT USING PHEROMONES IN ROMANIA
Authors: Sonica Drosu
Abstract: This paper is a synthesis of the main results reported in the literature generated by the use of the pheromones in Romania. There are many earlier references on this field, presented in the tables; refreshment and actualizing of this knowledge is important to maintain the interest for this field involved for ecological agriculture sustainability and to continue the studies in order to implement the methods of use of the pheromones in integrated management of pests.
Key words: pheromones, integrated pest management
PROTECTION OF APPLE ORCHARDS AGAINST SUMMER FRUIT TORTRIX MOTH (ADOXOPHYES RETICULANA HB.) BY BIOTECHNIQUE METHOD ATTRACT & KILL
Sonica Drosu, Maria Ciobanu, Mihaela Sumedrea, Cecilia Bulbose, Lucia Gansca, Georgeta Teodorescu
Abstract: This paper presents the results of the studies carried out during 2008-2009 in apple orchards from RDIPP Bucharest, RDIFG Pitesti-Maracineni and RDSFG Voinesti against summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes reticulana) by Attract and Kill biotechnique. Romanian product developed by Research Institute for Chemistry "Raluca Ripan" Cluj-Napoca used. This product consists of specific pheromone of the pest and a pyretroid.
To demonstrate the possibility of simultaneous control of the summer fruit tortrix moth and the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), the major pest of apple, combined product containing the same proportion of specific pheromone of both pests was used comparativelly. The results showed good efficacy of the product MESAJ AR (containing pheromone only for A. reticulana), 84.6-91.8% respectively and also for the product SIGNAL AC (with specific pheromones for A. reticulana and for C. pomonella), 89.1-91.4% respectively. It may recommend so, simultaneous control of those two dangerous pests for apple orchards (codling moth and summer fruit tortrix moth), with particular benefits for the environment.
Key words: pheromones, Attract & Kill, summer fruit tortrix moth, Adoxophyes reticulana
PATHOGENS IN EARLY STAGES OF WINTER BARLEY CROPS - PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Authors: Vasile Jinga, Horia Iliescu, Sorin Stefan, Lucia Sandru, Ana-Maria Andrei, Marin Lixandru, Catalin Lazureanu
Abstract: The studies concerning the chemical and farm practices methods for harmful agents control are justified by the modern development of plant protection intended to a sustainable agriculture.
This study analyzes the influence of these methods on the main harmful agents of barley, which have a high frequency and negative impact during the first vegetation stages,Erysiphe graminisi f. sp. hordei, Barley yelow dwarf virus, Agriotes lineatus, Zabrus tenebrioides.
The results showed that the sowing time of winter barley, which usually takes place between the 15th of September and 5th of October, it should be delayed 10 days depending on the region. Earlier sowing leads to excessive growth of the plants in autumn with the high risk for foliar pests. Seed treatments and those applied during vegetation can stop the attack of the main winter barley foliar pests, and most of these chemicals have a very good efficacy.
Key words: barley, virus, attack, seed, treatment, antifungal
MONOCOTYLEDONOUS WEEDS CONTROL IN MAIZE CROPS BY CHEMICALLY METHODS
Authors: Sorin Stefan, Ana Maria Andrei, Lucia Sandru, Vasile Jinga
Abstract: Although in Romania, monocotyledonous weeds species are few in number, compared to the dicotyledonous, the density and rapacity which sometimes creates more damage than dicotyledonous. In the present study was attempted several monocotyledonous weed control solutions, in the experiences this species was dominant. The researches were conducted during 2008-2009, using both herbicides pre emergence and post emergence, in 2009 interventions was and with a total herbicide applied before sowing.
Key words: weed, maize, control, herbicide.
SULFONYLUREA HERBICIDES RISK ASSESSMENT ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM MODEL
Authors: Carmen Mincea, Marga Gradila, Elena Hera, Alexandra Pasareanu
Abstract: This paper presents the obtained results regarding the environmental risk assessment for chlorsulfuron formulated as WG and WP and mixture between chlorsulfuron and tribenuronmetil in the same formulation. For testing it was used a biological system model in compliance with ISO 17025, respectively green algae. The main objective of our study was to maintain the RENAR accreditation for toxicity tests on green algae. In the same time, for maintaining ISO 17025 accreditation they were performed management analyses, audits and corrective actions to settle nonconformities. As result the Ecotoxicology Laboratory has maintained the RENAR accreditation for the above mentioned tests.
Key words: ecotoxicology, sulfonylureas, toxicity, alga.
TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS IN BEAUVERIA BASSIANA – PLODIA INTERPUNCTELLA LABORATORY BIOASSAY
Authors: Cristina Fatu, Viorel Fatu, Ana-Maria Andrei
Abstract: In the paper are presented experimental data providing the importance of the “temperature” parameter in the laboratory Beauveria bassiana bioassay procedure, using Plodia interpunctella, as host insect. The test duration depends on larval instar and temperature, as follows : at 20ºC four days for L2 and five days for L4; at 25ºC three days for L2 and L3. Higher temperatures prevent the rapid development of mycosis on Plodia interpunctella larvae.
Key words: Beauveria, Plodia interpunctella, bioassay
ORGANIC COMPOSITIONS FOR ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
Authors: Elena Hera, Carmen Mincea, Alexandra Pasareanu, Mariana Popescu, Elena Dobre, Sanda Velea, Catalin Lazureanu, Florin Oancea
Abstract: This paper presents the results regarding assessment of biological action of 13 samples prepared in ICECHIM laboratories on mosses and lichens. The samples with the best efficacy were used in order to develop original compositions with potential biocide action for control the bodies responsible for architectural heritage biodegradation. The selected samples for further studies were the following: DL4 (glutaraldehyde, methyl hexadeciltrimetilammonium, diethylene), DL6 (2-ethylhexanoate acid), DL1 (benzalkonium chloride, didecildimetilammonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and sodium bicarbonate), DL3 (benzalkonium chloride, didecildimetilammonium chloride, imbentinU/070 and citric acid), DI (irgasan), and DPN (horseradish extracts). These samples have proved an increased percentage of inhibition of the mosses on stone substrate and of lichens grown on brick tiles.
Key words: ecological control, biocides, arhitectural heritage, biodegradation.
RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE FERTILIZATION SYSTEM, THE NUTRITION SPACE AND THE SEEDING - HARVESTING PERIODS OVER THE QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET BIOMASS USED TO OBTAIN BIOFUELS
Authors: Radu Taus, Ioan Gherman
Abstract: Under crisis conditions which put pressure on humanity at present, it is imperative to find new sources of energy and food. Promoting production and consumption of bioethanol is one of the major objectives of EU. The purpose of the experiments made within this study is to establish the fertilization system of the nutrition space and of the sugar beet seeding - harvesting period which allows obtaining a quantity of biomass as high as possible, with a high quality, in order to use it in the production of biofuels. Investigations were carried out between 2007 and 2009 at the National Research and Development Institute for Potato and Sugarbeet – Brasov. The results have revealed the versions of fertilization with manure as being the ones which have given the most sugar content (more Than 18%), but the largest roots production have been recorded using the version of fertilization with chemical fertilizers (over 81 tonnes / ha). The plant density version of 100,000 plants / ha has been noted in the case of the Evelina and Chiara hybrids with productions exceeding 14 tonnes of biological sugar / ha. The sugar beet seeded at a density of 100,000 plants / ha in the first period and harvested in the last decade of October, fertilized with 40 tonnes of manure, recorded the highest production / ha, the highest sugar content and implicitly the most quantity of bioethanol.
Key words: sugar beet, biofuels, bioethanol.
ENTOMOPATHOGENIC RICKETTSIELLA BACTERIA: PHYLOGENOMICS OF A POSSIBLE SOURCE FOR BIOINSECTICIDE DEVELOPMENT
Authors: Andreas Leclerque
Abstract: The application of molecular techniques to the phylogenetics of “rickettsias of insects” has triggered a recent controversy on the most appropriate taxonomic organization of the bacterial genus Rickettsiella. Making use of the first whole genome sequence data available from this taxon - namely from an American isolate stemming from the pill-bug, Armadillidium vulgare - a combination of phylogenetic reconstruction and likelihood-based significance testing has been employed to establish its phylogeny beyond the 16S rRNA gene level. On the basis of an evaluated set of 181 single-copy orthologous gene (SCOG) families, the present study demonstrates that the pathotype `Rickettsiella armadillidii´ is correctly assigned to the gammaproteobacterial order Legionellales, but that its further assignment to the taxonomic family Coxiellaceae is unsubstantiated. `R. armadillidii´ and related Rickettsiella bacteria are therefore equally closely related to vertebrate pathogenic bacteria of the genera Coxiella and Legionella. The consequences of this phylogenomic result for the possible development of a new bioinsecticide will be discussed.
Key words: Rickettsiella armadillidii´, Legionellales, Coxiellaceae, bioinsecticide.
SELECTION OF BACTERIAL STRAINS USEFULL IN BIOACTIVE MULCH AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS
Authors: Florica Constantinescu, Florin Oancea, Oana-Alina Sicuia, Sorina Dinu
Abstract: This study referes to the use of “bioactive mulch” (vegetal mulch suplimented with antagonistic beneficial bacteria) as an alternative to chemical fertilization of the crops and application of pesticides. Therefore, we selected two bacterial strains with biological activity in vitro against soil borne fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and Fusarium graminearum. The selected strains, Usa2 Bacillus subtilis and 56.1s Brevibacillus laterosporus were analized for important biological traits like enzimes production (amilase, lactonase and cellulase), plant growth promotion, ability to mineralize the lignocellulosic material and for their mobility. Finnaly, the inocuity test was performed to establish the toxic potential of the izolates against mammalians.
Key words: cover crop, mulch, beneficial bacteria, biocontrol