REVIEW OF QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM IN ECOTOXICOLOGY LABORATORY
Author: Carmen Mincea
Abstract: Laboratories with a quality system accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 have a definite advantage, compared to non-accredited laboratories, when preparing their facilities for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development good laboratory practice (OECD GLP) recognition. Accredited laboratories have an established quality system convering the administrative and technical issues specified in the standard. These issues include: internal audits, job descriptions and responsabilities, procedures for equipment/instrument maintenance and calibration, document control, handling of reagents, chemicals and reference materials, sample reception and sampling, validation of test methods, traceability and uncertainty of the tests results, training of personnel, client complaints, corrective and preventive actions. Several of these issues are also required for OECD GLP recognition either with a different emphasis and/or with additional requirements.
Key words: quality system, accredited laboratory, good laboratory
NEW BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (Bals.) Vuill. ISOLATE FROM IPS DUPLICATUS (Sahlberg)
Authors: Mihaela Monica Dinu, Daniela Lupăştean, Gabriel Cardaş, Ana-Maria Andrei
Abstract: Adults of Northern bark beetle Ips duplicatus (Sahlberg) showing symptoms of white muscardine were found under a Norway spruce bark - Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. Isolation and fungi identification procedures were performed. Fungus was identified as Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Koch’s postulates were used to prove a causal relationship between B. bassiana and the diseased I. duplicatus. Inoculated insects showed symptoms similar to the previously observed. The mortality caused by B. bassiana to I. duplicatus reached 100% within 4 days after the artificial inoculation.
The study is the first report of an occurrence in natural outbreaks of this association between the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana and the bark beetle I. duplicatus.
Key words: Beauveria bassiana, Ips duplicatus
ECOTOXICOLOGICAL IMPACT OF HERBICIDES BASED ON 2,4 D ON AQUATIC BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
Authors: Marga Grădilă, Mincea Carmen, Elena Hera
Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the environmental risks of four herbicides based on 2,4 D showing the demonstrating data of the biological systems using aquatic organisms in GLP designed conditions in the eco-toxicological facility of RDIPP Bucharest. In order to assess the four herbicides environmental risk, according to the principles of good laboratory practice, the following stages were ensured: development of the framework structure by ensuring the material base (plant complex to produce de-ionized water, reconstituted and thermostatic water), water supply for tests, achievement of the control system and software for inspection of the environmental conditions in the acclimation and test rooms, and development of the specific operating procedures and testing. The acquired data established that the biological systems model of the testing facility agree with the OECD directories concerning the GLP compliance. Following the examination of the herbicides in terms of acute toxicity against Daphnia magna and Cyprinus carpio, revealed that two out of them (2,4 - D (2,4 - dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid and herbicide mixture of 2,4 - D and chlorsulfuron ) showed environmental efficiency and low toxicity respectively. When 2,4 – D acid is conditioned, form ester ethylhexyl showed a higher toxicity, inducing toxicity symptoms in fish: to lack of response to tactile stimuli, excitation and loss of balance. The mixture of 2,4 D + bromoxynil showed a moderate toxicity to fish and daphnia.
Key words: eco-toxicology, reconstituted biological system, Cyprinus carpio, Daphnia magna
EFFECT OF SOME PESTICIDES WITH DIFFERENT TARGET SITE ON THE PINK BOLLWORM, PECTINOPHORA GOSSYPIELLA (SAUNDERS)
Author: Al-Kazafy Hassan Sabry
Abstract: Laboratory bioassay showed that the conventional pesticide lambda-cyhalothrin was the most effective than thiamethoxam and buprofezin which tested against the newly hatched larvae of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). The LC50 of thiamethoxam, buprofezin and lambda-cyhalothrin was 5.9, 87.5 and 4.9 ppm, respectively. When the synergism agent, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was combined with the tested pesticides the toxicity of all pesticides was increased and the LC50 was decreased to 1.4, 15.1 and 2.6, respectively. Some biological aspects (larval duration, pupal stage, number of laid egg per female and percent of hatchability) were affected by buprofezin treatment more than thiamethoxam and lambda cyhalothrin. Field experiment showed that lambda – cyhalothrin was the most effective than thiamethoxam and buprofezin. The percent of reduction in pink bollworm infestation to cotton bolls by using lambda-cyhalothrin, thiamethoxam and buprofezin was 85.7, 39.3 and 19.5%, respectively, during 2009 cotton season; and 80.1, 64.7 and 39.1%, respectively, during 2010 cotton season. These results suggested that lambda-cyhalothrin is the most effective pesticide against the pink bollworm larvae. And also, buprofezin has a good role in incidence of disturbance in developmental process. In addition, the use of synergistic agent PBO has a good role in increasing toxicity of all the tested pesticides especially with thiamethoxam.
Key words: Pink bollworm, thiamethoxam, buprofezin, lambda cyhalothrin, synergistic agents, mortality percent, biological aspects
DYNAMIC STUDIES ON MIXTURE OF ETHYL FORMATE AND CARBON DIOXIDE FOR DISINFESTATION OF GRAIN
Authors: Viorel Fătu, Andrei Chiriloaie, Maria Ciobanu, Sonica Drosu, Florin Oancea
Abstract: Among the new technologies as alternative control methods for stored product pests is the mixture of ethyl formate (EF) and carbon dioxide (CO2) for disinfestation of grain. This paper presents the results of dynamic studies on gaseous mixture consisting of EF and CO2 in different doses introduced into the pest control of warehouses. The most effective recipe for composition of FE and CO2 gas was dose of 5.7 ml EF/50 kg wheat + 20 l CO2, with a period for 3 hours exposure to gas mixture. Larval lethal doses were in the range of 3.5425-5.6938 ml EF/50 kg wheat and adults lethal doses between 0.4249-4.5613 ml EF/50 kg wheat, larvae being more resistant to treatment with ethyl formate (LD 100 = 5.6938) compared with adults (LD 100 = 4.5613).
Key words: ethyl formate, carbon dioxide, fumigation, stored grain insects